Why does Select by Location select points outside search radius?

Why does Select by Location select points outside search radius?

I'm using Select by Location to find wind turbines within 5-km of a center point feature -- why does this command also select nearby turbines?

The image below shows my selected points with a 5-km buffer circle drawn for comparison. As you can see, turbines that are not even close to touching the circle are included.

"multi-points" (you can check in the geometry field) behave like single geometries. You can convert from multi-point to points using "multipart to single part" tool, then you can run your "select by location" within a distance. If needed, you can then dissolve the points based on the original ORIG_ID in order to reconstruct the multi-points.

The other option is to create the buffers around your wind farm, then intersect with your multi-points (the output will be multi-points).

Understand & manage your location when you search on Google

When you search on Google, like with Maps, Search or Google Assistant, your current location is used to give you more helpful results. For example, if you search for coffee shops, you’re likely searching for coffee shops near you. Your locat ion helps to show you nearby results, even if you didn't include a location in your search.

Your location comes from a variety of sources, which are used together to estimate where you are. You can update your location settings as you use Google services to get the search results you want and control your privacy in a way that's right for you.

If you want to learn more about how locatio n works before changing your settings, below you’ll find info on how Google determines location when you search.

Many Google Places Searches Are Showing an Increased Radius For Search Results

Since the spring of last year, Google has been reducing the radius for displaying results on many local searches. Effectively this meant that businesses outside the smaller radius would no longer show a pinned result. I had investigated this problem in searches as varied as “Jewerly Buffalo NY”, “Personal Injury Attorney Anchorage”, “Bankruptcy Attorney Charlotte”, “New Orleans Divorce” and “DC Accident Attorney” amongst others. In each of these cases businesses that had once shown up in the Google Places Search results were no longer found. Frequently they had dropped as many as 40 or 50 places on their head terms only.

Uniformly it appeared that Google had increased the “location sensitivity” of the search limiting which businesses would be seen. This affect has been noted in a number of industries and Google had spoken about their testing of this on NPR.

Brian Combs of alerted me that the radius had once again increased to show search results from a much broader map area. In the five cases that I had looked at, the businesses that had been dropped with the decreased radius, once again showed up on the map and in the search.

Here is an screen shot of the map that showed for the search area that presented during last year and the search area presented as of yesterday on the search “Jewerly Buffalo NY“. Note the dramatic increase in distance from the centroid and the number of included pins in the newest results. Under the previous reduced radius only businesses in very close proximity to the centroid were shown. (click to view larger):

Linda Buquet documented the reduced search area in her October post Google Places Algorithm Change – New Proximity Lockout Algo Can Cause Major Ranking Drop. The reduced radius had also been noted by Andrew Shotland in June of 2011. The reduced radius appeared to rollout in different markets at different times but its return has occurred on all of the searches I examined simultaneously.

What is going on?

In the examples that I looked at (“Jewelers Buffalo NY”, “Personal Injury Attorneys Anchorage” or “Bankruptcy Lawyers Charlotte”) were all head term, primary keyword/category searches. It effectively left some businesses without a front page presence for their primary high traffic terms that were previously ranking well.

At the time Linda Buquet suggested that Google had created a new algo. I have also heard the reduced radius referred to as a filter. However it is much more likely that Google has tweaked their existing “Location Sensitivity” routines either manually or automatically to provide new results.

“Location sensitivity” is a concept from Google’s Patent: Methods and Systems for Improving A Search Ranking using Location Awareness”. First filed in 2006 and approved in 2009, Bill Slawsky covered the details of this patent in December of 2006 .

According to the patent, Location Sensitivity is a score that may be a “function of the topic, the search query or query terms, the user or user profile, the location associated with the query or a cluster of the search results or any umber of other factors”.

The patent notes: “For example, location component may determine that users are generally more location sensitive for the topic “pizza” than for the topic “automobiles/cars,” so that users may generally be interested in documents on the topic of “automobiles/cars” that are far(ther) away from their location, whereas users may generally only be interested in documents on the topic of “pizza” that are near(er) to their location.”

Thus for any given combination of product-service + geo search the radius for the returned results can either be smaller or larger. For a highly location sensitive search that has a high number of results in a small area the radius will be smaller. For a low location sensitive search with the few results spread far and wide, the radius will be larger.

This can vary by things as diverse at the density of the geography, the density of the businesses within the geography or the clustering of those businesses in a small area. It can vary by the geo search term used defining a different sensitivity (ie radius) for zip code than city or neighborhood for example. As Bill pointed out in a recent email, it could even be affected by users retrieving more driving directions.

In the case of mobile, Google has publicly acknowledged testing and tweaking the distance of the radius on these types of search, making it significantly smaller and it is possible that they were testing the same thing on the desktop. If you haven’t listened to this interview, you should.

It could be that Google is increasing the radius as much as they are decreasing it due to the factors above. I and others in the search business are more likely to get called when a business ranking drops thus the samples set I look at was biased. The fact that it has only been noted within the last 8-10 months and by so many others, it seems likely that the radius was in fact getting smaller on some subset of searches and has once again gotten larger. Regardless if it happens to your listing on a critical search phrase it sucks. And just like the radius has again increased, it can decrease.

How can you tell if your client is suffering from the effect of increased location sensitivity and a reduced radius go forward?

First and foremost it is necessary to distinguish this situation from a penalty. Unlike a penalty, the listing will still rank for longer tail, less competitive categories or perhaps suburban or neighborhood terms. If the listing was previously showing for a primary category/city search and is now only still showing on lower volume terms then you need to consider the likelihood that the location sensitivity of your query has been increased and the search radius has been reduced.

There is a technique in Google Maps that allows a map to show a primary keyword search result plus a second search for the business on the same map. Perform the primary search, switch and create a business search. Then select the previous search from the drop down below the Map/Satelite icon so that both sets of pins are one the map. It may then be necessary to zoom out to see both search results simultaneously.

It will be quickly apparent with this technique that you are outside the radius of the main search results.

Why the results do not always serve the searcher

Google’s focus over the past 10 months on such a narrow cluster of listings is often not in the best interest of the searcher. While it might serve the mobile searcher it is much more problematic for the desktop searcher. For example in my Buffalo Jewelry example, Buffalo attracts shoppers from a wide geographic area stretching about 100 miles in any direction. My family lives 75 miles south of the city and when we say that we are going shopping in Buffalo, we usually mean to the eastern suburbs, outside the search radius. We don’t even know the names of the suburbs in that area to be able to do a more granular search. Going downtown as suggested by the search is not common nor is the selection of jewelry stores as great.

Google’s ranking algo has always had an element of distance from the center of the search area as an element in ranking. While location sensitivity could and does occur around pockets of businesses NOT in the centroid it is uncommon due to historical development patterns. This reduction of radius tends to amplify this affect, creating ever more pressure for scammers to put listings near the centroid. This may have the affect of reinforcing and perhaps even causing the tendency to reduce the search radius as more (fake) businesses are closer to the center . The technique may work in a dense urban area like NYC but in car dependent cities like Buffalo it doesn’t offer up a wide enough range of choices in the search results.

How do you cope if it happens to you?

Like taxes and the weather, there is a certain inevitability to Google. It can be frustrating and tempting to lament your loss. Sometimes though it is easier to find alternative strategies for continued success. Here are some ideas if it happens to your listing in the future:

*Be sure that your listing is not being penalized or being affected by one of the many other Google Places quirks.

*Attempt to knock spammers out of Google Places so that there are fewer businesses inside the smaller radius.

Gav Heppinstall did just that and wrote it up in his post: Google Places – Cracking the Proximity Lockout Algo. We don’t know the minimum number of businesses that Google needs to create decrease or increase sensitivity. But Gav demonstrated that in at least one case, it was only necessary to knock one spammer out of the game for Google to increase the radius.

*Be sure the your website is optimized and ranks well for the phrases that you lost in local.

With the new reduced footprint of the Local results, there is once again good opportunity for doing well in organic search phrases. If you can’t succeed in the particular local search due to vagaries of location sensitivity, you can still do well organically.

*Explore alternative categories for Google Places that are valuable and show a map that includes your location.

In the case of Barbara Oliver we switched our focus to engagement rings and diamond jewelry. While the traffic was significantly less the quality, profit per sale and conversions were much higher. It behooves you to think about this issue today and be ready to work different categories if this occurs.

*Consider opening up a shop with the main search area.

If the terms are valuable enough and if there is enough business then it might warrant your expansion. I would never be driven by Google’s fickle nature but it does behoove you to explore the opportunity for expansion.

*Always be developing alternative marketing strategies

Being dependent solely on Google’s Places search result is a bad idea from the gitgo. Having your success or failure predicated on the whims of the search giant is a roller coaster at best and plan for disaster at worst. It is imperative that you have an refine techniques that will find you customers even when Google’s search result go south.

I would love to hear if you suffered from a reduced radius, how you coped and whether your listing has returned to the search results with the recent changes. Let me know.


The CODATA value of the Bohr radius (in SI units) is 5.291 772 109 03 (80) × 10 −11 m . [1]

The Bohr model derives a radius for the nth excited state of a hydrogen-like atom. The Bohr radius corresponds to n = 1 .

In the Bohr model for atomic structure, put forward by Niels Bohr in 1913, electrons orbit a central nucleus under electrostatic attraction. The original derivation posited that electrons have orbital angular momentum in integer multiples of the reduced Planck constant, which successfully matched the observation of discrete energy levels in emission spectra, along with predicting a fixed radius for each of these levels. In the simplest atom, hydrogen, a single electron orbits the nucleus, and its smallest possible orbit, with lowest energy, has an orbital radius almost equal to the Bohr radius. (It is not exactly the Bohr radius due to the reduced mass effect. They differ by about 0.05%.)

The Bohr model of the atom was superseded by an electron probability cloud obeying the Schrodinger equation, which is further complicated by spin and quantum vacuum effects to produce fine structure and hyperfine structure. Nevertheless the Bohr radius formula remains central in atomic physics calculations, due in part to its simple relationship with other fundamental constants. (This is why it is defined using the true electron mass rather than the reduced mass, as mentioned above.) For example, it is the unit of length in atomic units.

An important distinction is that the Bohr radius gives the radius with the maximum radial probability density, [3] not its expected radial distance. The expected radial distance is 1.5 times the Bohr radius, as a result of the long tail of the radial wave function. Another important distinction is that in three-dimensional space, the maximum probability density occurs at the location of the nucleus and not at the Bohr radius, whereas the radial probability density peaks at the Bohr radius, i.e. when plotting the probability distribution in its radial dependency.

The Bohr radius is about 19,000 times bigger than the classical electron radius (i.e. the common scale of atoms is angstrom, while the scale of particles is femtometer). The electron's Compton wavelength is about 20 times smaller than the Bohr radius, and the classical electron radius is about 1000 times smaller than the electron's Compton wavelength.

The Bohr radius including the effect of reduced mass in the hydrogen atom can be given by the following equations:

In the first equation, the effect of the reduced mass is achieved by using the increased Compton wavelength, which is just the sum of the electron and proton Compton wavelengths. The use of reduced mass is inherently a classical generalization of the two-body problem when we are outside the approximation that the mass of the orbiting body is much less than the mass of the body being orbited.

Notably, the reduced mass of the electron/proton system will be (very slightly) smaller than the electron mass, so the "Reduced Bohr radius" is actually larger than the typical value ( a 0 ∗ ≈ 1.00054 a 0 ^<*>approx 1.00054,a_<0>> or a 0 ∗ ≈ 5.2946541 × 10 − 11 ^<*>approx 5.2946541 imes 10^<-11>> meters).

This result can be generalized to other systems, such as positronium (an electron orbiting a positron) and muonium (an electron orbiting an anti-muon) by using the reduced mass (or equivalently Compton wavelength sum) of the system and considering the possible change in charge. Typically, Bohr model relations (radius, energy, etc.) can be easily modified for these exotic systems (up to lowest order) by simply replacing the electron mass with the reduced mass for the system (as well as adjusting the charge when appropriate). For example, the radius of positronium is approximately 2 a 0 > , since the reduced mass of the positronium system is half the electron mass ( μ e − , e + = m e / 2 >^<->,< ext>^<+>>=m_< ext>/2> ), while the reduced mass for the electron/proton system is approximately the electron mass ( μ e − , p ≈ m e >^<->,< ext

>>approx m_< ext>> ), as discussed above.

See search suggestions for places

  1. Sign in to Google Maps.
  2. Open Google Maps or the Google Maps app .
  3. In the search box, start typing a search, like restaurants .
  4. Personalized search results might appear under the search box. For example, your search results can include places you've searched for before. If you're signed in to your Google Account but you don't see personalized search results, make sure that Web & App Activity is turned on.
  5. Choose a place to see it on the map and get more information.

Data management & error handling

Data integrity

Uploading jobs: Data issues can prevent jobs from being uploaded to Job Search. Please see the HTTP Response Codes page for a list of error codes. Common examples include:

  • Job locations are incorrect, so the request can't be resolved.
  • Company or Job fields do not exist, so a bad request is returned.

There are three main options for troubleshooting job uploading issues:

  • Check the logging from your back end.
  • Check the CTS management tool for data logging.
  • Set up the Stackdriver Monitoring Tool on Cloud Console to collect data on metrics, events, and metadata.

Indexing jobs: Job Search is designed to index all of your uploaded jobs within a set period of time. However, you may have quota restrictions on your end. Be sure to check your system for restrictions on indexing requests before sending jobs to CTS.

Self-inflicted DDoS attacks

Error handling

API services provided over the internet can have intermittent connection failure, a prolonged outage, sudden service maintenance and other events that require a client application to retry the API request. Make sure to design the retry with network friendly behavior, for example exponential backoff.

Quota limits

Avoid sending traffic higher than your provisioned quota, especially far higher than your provisioned quota. Otherwise, your traffic may be classified as malicious and therefore blocked.


Duplicate jobs negatively impact a job seeker's search experience. Job Search includes two features to minimize duplicates:

Create jobs: If you try to create 2+ jobs with the following criteria, the record is rejected and a 4xx error is returned:

Search for jobs: Job Search surfaces jobs that are relevant to job seeker's search query. A built-in feature of the relevance algorithm makes sure that any returned jobs are diversified, preventing nearly identical jobs from showing up next to each other in search results.

Except as otherwise noted, the content of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License, and code samples are licensed under the Apache 2.0 License. For details, see the Google Developers Site Policies. Java is a registered trademark of Oracle and/or its affiliates.

Configuring WPA2-Enterprise with RADIUS using Cisco ISE

Cisco Meraki access points can be configured to provide enterprise WPA2 authentication for wireless networks using Cisco Identity Services Engine (ISE) as a RADIUS server. This article will cover instructions for basic integration with this platform. For more detailed information on how to configure Cisco ISE, please refer to the Cisco Identity Services Engine User Guide.


Installing Server Certificates

After installation, Cisco ISE generates, by default, a self-signed local certificate and private key, and stores them on the server. This certificate will be used by default for WPA2-Enterprise. In a self-signed certificate, the hostname of Cisco ISE is used as the common name (CN) because it is required for HTTPS communication.

Note:Using a self-signed certificate is not recommended for RADIUS. In order to use the default self-signed cert, clients will need to be configured to not validate the RADIUS server's identity. Please refer to our RADIUS documentation for certificate options on the RADIUS server.

Adding Managed Network Devices

  1. In Cisco ISE, choose Administration > Network Resources > Network Devices.
  2. From the Network Devices navigation pane on the left, click Network Devices.
  3. Click Add, or check the check box next to a device and click Edit to edit it or click Duplicate to create a duplicate entry. You can alternatively click Add new device from the action icon on the Network Devices navigation pane or click a device name from the list to edit it.
  4. In the right pane, enter the Name and IP Address.
  5. Check the Authentication Settings check box and define a Shared Secret for RADIUS authentication. This must match the Secret entered for the RADIUS server when configuring the SSID in Dashboard.
  6. Click Submit.

Enabling Policy Sets

Cisco ISE supports policy sets, which allows grouping sets of authentication and authorization policies, as opposed to the basic authentication and authorization policy model, which is a flat list of authentication and authorization rules. Policy sets allow for logically defining an organization's IT business use cases into policy groups or services, such as VPN and 802.1X. This makes configuration, deployment, and troubleshooting much easier.

Changing the Appearance of the Circles

You also can change the appearance of the circles you draw with the Radius Around Point Tool. This is useful if you’re tracking the areas covered by different classes of things.

To change the appearance of the circles you draw, click the “Colours and Line Thickness” section, and then select the values you want for line thickness, line color, and fill color. You can’t change the appearance of a circle you’ve already drawn, so make sure to set these values before you add the circle.

Here are some different circles I’ve added to the map.

I can’t print a PDF file. How do I get it to print?

PDF files occasionally have problems printing, or print only partially when printed using normal methods.

Print the file as an image (this may take a little longer than normal printing).

  1. Open the File Menu
  2. Select “Print”
  3. The Printing window will appear
  4. Click “Advanced”
  5. Put a check in the box next to “Print as Image”
  6. Click OK to close the “Advanced” window
  7. Click OK to print
    Monday 8:00 am – 5:00 pm
    Tuesday 8:00 am – 3:00 pm
    Wednesday 8:00 am – 5:00 pm
    Thursday 8:00 am – 5:00 pm
    Friday 8:00 am – 5:00 pm

No-Tuition Promise

Berea is the only one of America’s top colleges that makes a no-tuition promise to every enrolled student.

No student pays for tuition.

Our generous Tuition promise scholarship makes it possible for you to graduate debt-free. Even if you borrow for special learning opportunities or to replace your family’s total contribution, you will have a low debt compared to national trends. We sometimes call Berea “the best education money can’t buy.”

Four Important Factors

  1. Parking: Ideally, a new restaurant location should have its own parking lot. If that isn’t an option—for example, in a major city—consider partnering with a hotel in the area that has its own parking options. Many famous restaurants are housed in hotels, and for a good reason. Not only is there parking, but the benefit of foot traffic that is staying right upstairs is incalculable.
  2. Accessibility: There’s a reason that major restaurant chains are often located near highway exits: It makes them accessible for customers. Certain restaurants can get away with food or service that isn't the best simply because their locations are so accessible, like restaurants near the Eiffel Tower or Collisseum. There is plenty of foot traffic in urbanized areas, and restaurants only need to attract customers from the street into their business. Most successful restaurants—other than the truly elite—are easy to find, and you will find them in city centers or unique locations throughout the world.
  3. Visibility: This goes along with accessibility and is very important for new restaurant locations. People have to know the restaurant is there, either in person or on their mobile devices. It is why property prices in downtown districts and developed strips are higher than in other areas. They offer a level of visibility that can bring in a great deal of walk-in business. Consider advertising in search engines and social media to enhance your presence across all forms of media. Make sure to register your restaurant in search engines as the type of food you offer and your price point, as it will be easier to attract the clientele you want when they go to search.
  4. Population Base: Are there enough people in the area to support your business? There need to be enough people who live in or pass through the area regularly to keep you busy. To determine a particular area's population base, you could do a site study. However, these can cost up to $25,000. Most people looking at their first restaurant don’t have enough money in their budget for a professional survey. A less expensive method to determine the population base of a certain area is to use a pie chart, as well as asking the local chamber of commerce and town office for more information. If you would rather pound the pavement, simply walk around the area where you plan to build. Intuition can place a big role in choosing your site.

Address all these elements when you sit down to draft your business plan for a new restaurant, which you will need before applying for a loan. Also, by understanding each of these elements, you can better choose the right location for your new restaurant.

Watch the video: Select By Location