Alternative profile graphs for ArcGIS

Alternative profile graphs for ArcGIS

Anybody know an alternative to profile graph option for ArcGIS 10.2? 3D Analyst can produce a profile, however it's extremely bare bones and doesn't include a scaling option.

Does anybody know an effective alternative to make a profile graph that can be added to ArcMap layouts?

Somewhere at the bare bone 3D Analyst graph is an option to export the underlying data and use Excel or others to create the graph.

If you want to avoid manually made (clicked) profile graphs with the 3D Analyst it is also possible to use existing line features. You create a equal distributed point file along a line for which you want to create the profile. Then use Extract Values to Points (requires Spatial Analyst) to write the raster height values to your point file. Since the distance between the points is equal you can use Excel or whatever you want and create a graph from the data table of the point file.

It is not necessary to use Spatial Analyst e.g. this.

Compare eSpatial vs Esri ArcGIS

What is better eSpatial or Esri ArcGIS? Buying the perfect Geographic Information Systems - GIS product is all about evaluating numerous solutions and identifying the top application for your specific needs. Our unique system provides you with an instant look at the general rating of eSpatial and Esri ArcGIS. For overall quality and performance, eSpatial scored 7.7, while Esri ArcGIS scored 8.5. On the other hand, for user satisfaction, eSpatial earned 89%, while Esri ArcGIS earned 97%.

Below it's also possible to look at their characteristics, terms, plans, etc. to find out which software will be more appropriate for your needs. One key feature to check is if the software can enable and disable permissions on different types of users to secure any sensitive corporate data.

Users who are pressed for time or would like to get a Geographic Information Systems - GIS advice from our experts may want to take a look at these top choices for this year: ArcGIS, TerraSync, Mapbox .

British Columbia

Online GIS Data Sources

Spatial Data Portals & Clearinghouses

Haiti Geospatial Data Resources- A guide to Tufts Haiti Geospatial Data Repository and for Online Haiti Geospatial Data repositories.
ArcGIS Online - EROS Data Center - Great source for U.S. topographic data and internatonal DEMs.
David Rumsey Historical Map Collection - Digital, georeferenced historical maps
GIS Data Depot
GeoCommons Finder! - Community-based geoportal.
Geography Network
Geospatial One Stop
Global Spatial Data Infrastructure Association (GSDI) - List of portals by scale
FGDC Clearinghouse Registry - Registry of data portals.
Harvard Geospatial Library - Free Digital Chart of the World (DCW) data and historic maps.
Starting the Hunt: Guide to Free Geospatial Data - Great site for state-wide data.
US National Atlas - Free VMAP1 international data.

Boston Area GIS Data

Massachusetts GIS Data

MassGIS - State GIS Office - Great site for Massachusetts.
ArcGIS Online - Massachusetts - MassGIS publishes its data on ArcGIS Online - once on the site, scroll to find Massachusetts and click on the map - it will open in ArcGIS if you have it installed on your computer.
Mass Dept. of Fish & Game
Mass Dept. of Public Health

New England States GIS

U.S. Agencies

International Agencies

Haiti Geospatial Data Resources- A guide to Tufts Haiti Geospatial Data Repository and for Online Haiti Geospatial Data repositories.


1.Use Geographic Information System (GIS) for spatial query and water-related attributes of data analysis. 2.Timely management and statistical analysis of dynamic water supply status via the supply monitoring system. 3.Planning, construction, maintenance, management, and analysis of District Metered Area (DMA). 4.Management of water sales rates to improve overall revenue and estimate future trends.

Anti-leakage planning administrator

1. Allocation, supervision, material supply, and budget review of the anti-leakage work. 2. Water leakage cause analysis, leakage amount assessment, and planning of anti-leakage solutions. 3. Detect, repair and replace (potential) leaking pipelines and water meters to reduce the risks of leakage, flood, and land subsidence.

On-site Inspector

1. Claim water fee, material fee from water stealing cases or the contractor's excavation damaged pipeline. 2. Inspect unauthorized meters connections, defects, broken seals and potential damages. 3. Inspect and dispose of unauthorized water, water stealing, and controversial water meter locations, etc.

Sales clerk

1. General administration, including water application, fee payment, problem. 2. Storage, maintenance, and inventory management of water-related consumables. 3. Promote, maintain and manage social media accounts (Facebook), e-bills, mobile apps, etc. 4. Review water applications and provide recommendations for possible alternative sources of water. 5. Overall customer communication and customer service. 6. Inter-departmental negotiation with other water relevant participants.

Educational background for MING-HORN YEN

2 years and 11 months, Oct 2016 - Aug 2019

Sustainability Management

Technische Universität München

Thesis Topic: FDI Liberalization in Taiwan from Business Ethics Perspective. (Grade: 1,3)

Administrative Boundaries

Boundaries for various administrative units including: Regional Water Planning Areas and Groundwater Conservation Districts are approximate and may not accurately depict legal descriptions.

Groundwater Conservation Districts - Groundwater conservation districts in Texas. Source data is from TCEQ. Dataset current as of November 2019.

River Authorities and Special Law Districts - Statutory boundaries (but not necessarily the service areas). Data current as of 2014.

Groundwater Management Areas - GMAs - Groundwater Managment Area boundaries, approved May 2021.

Priority Groundwater Management Areas - PGMA - Updated Oct. 2009, as designated by TCEQ.

PFCA Regions and Field Office - Geographic area assignments for Regional Project Teams and Inspection & Field Support Services Offices.

Regional Water Planning Areas - The 16 Water Planning Regions in Texas, as created by TWDB, updated November 2014.

Flood Planning Regions - The 15 Flood Planning Regions in Texas, as created by TWDB, updated April 2020.

Alternative profile graphs for ArcGIS - Geographic Information Systems

Journal of Environmental Protection
Vol.4 No.12(2013), Article ID:40687,14 pages DOI:10.4236/jep.2013.412161

Hydrological Modeling Using GIS for Mapping Flood Zones and Degree Flood Risk in Zeuss-Koutine Basin (South of Tunisia)

Khemiri Sami 1 , Ben Alaya Mohsen 1 , Khnissi Afef 2 , Zargouni Fouad 1

1 Department of Geology, University of Sciences of Tunis, Manar, Tunisia, 2 Water Research and Technology Center, Solimane, Tunisia.

Email: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected], [email protected]

Copyright © 2013 Khemiri Sami et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. In accordance of the Creative Commons Attribution License all Copyrights © 2013 are reserved for SCIRP and the owner of the intellectual property Khemiri Sami et al. All Copyright © 2013 are guarded by law and by SCIRP as a guardian.

Received May 16 th , 2013 revised June 18 th , 2013 accepted July 14 th , 2013

Keywords: Degree Flood Risk GIS Geodatabase Flood Zones Hydrological Modeling

This study lies within the scope of a strategy of prevention from inundations by the contribution of new technology in stage of the hydrological and geomorphological modeling for protection against the floods in a medium of weak at the average risk in South-eastern Tunisia, starting from the catchment area of Zeuss-Koutine. Considering the lack of studies we were brought to extract the area catchment in question, and to deduce its geomorphological and hydrometric characteristics, starting from the digital terrain model. We could obtain, by overlaying maps of slopes, indices and flows, the hydrological zonation of the catchment area of Zeuss-Koutine. The hydrological study of the basin’s slopes of Zeuss-Koutine is not lying out that very little physical information rests primarily on cartographic processes. The use of the latter can be regarded as an allowing indicator, by the crossing of the explanatory factors of the surface flow (slopes and direction of flow), to define a set of homogeneous hydrological zones in the level of the hydrological characteristics (average slopes, altitudes, roughness, etc). It is mainly a question of better taking account of the physical properties of the basins slopes.

Prevention from natural risks represents a big challenge for humanity. Especially during last decade, there are brutal climatic changes around the world and any place could, at any moment, be flooded or stormed. In Tunisia, the climate is generally characterized by a high meteorological variability from north to south. It is qualified as an arid to semi-arid under Mediterranean influences toward the north and Saharan influences southward. This difference is due to the existence of a climatic barrier separating these two zones and known as Tunisian Ridge [1]. Such climate type with low rain laid, predominately, Tunisia at the exhibition of floods. The average annual rainfall, in southern Tunisia, doesn’t exceed 80 mm however the evapotranspiration is about 2500 mm. The negative hydrologic balance of these two parameters and the rarity of runoff contribute very little to the deep groundwater recharge. Despite the previously mentioned characteristics and the position of Tunisia in global climatic zones, floods have affected and might affect the south of our country in the area of Gabes-Medenine and specifically Zeuss-Koutine basin purpose of this study [1].

The detailed preliminary study and the choice of the solution proposed and the technique employed for the fight and protection against these floods are extremely important. The prevention is a paramount phase in protection, and it requires several studies geomorphologic, hydrological, topographic, hydrogeomorphologic, hydrogeological and modeling histories of the floods.

The hydrological study of the Zeuss-Koutine basin was conducted on the basis of the modeling, by the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) and, more precisely, the contribution of Digital Elevation Model of Ground (DEM) and its derivative. The DEM is used to define the slopes, the hydrographic network, the delimitation of the basin’s slopes and the extraction of the physical characteristics and water streaming related to this basin.

The whole digital results got in the form of layers of numerical information (GRID) on the areas catchment of Zeuss-Koutine and the water ways of surface constitute basic and useful information for hydrological modeling.

The conjugation of the various classes of parameters obtained starting from these cards streaming of surface, of the slopes (relief), of the hydrographic network, the physical characteristics of the basin and the flow directions and accumulations [2], allowed us to establish maps which will be stacked to other layers such as those of pedology, geology, vegetation and infrastructures. All results and collected parameters will help constitute a data bank usable for a hydrological modeling with space discretization, to delimit homogeneous zones and to prepare a digital cartographic support of the flood plains and degree risks along the basin.

The flood mapping was developed as a result of the layering of several parameters covering geographical areas capable of being flooded according to three scenarios (flood low probability, flood medium probability and flood high probability). Through the application of the formula of Lee (2007), we were able to extract the degree of flood risk in the study area per pixel.

The choice of the technique employed and analyzes it physical and socio-economic operation area catchment to allow ( Figure 1 ):

- To locate and to gradually choose the sectors on which it is desirable and possible to carry out preventive actions for protection against the floods.

- To quantify their effect on the risings and to appreciate their limits and costs.

The cartography of the flood plains and the realization of the maps of the degree risks require several types of studies.

These studies complementary and are connected.

The unit makes it possible to release an adapted and coherent vision of the operation of the catchment area and the problems of installation.

Principal the studies of preventions are the following

Figure 1 . Chart showing the work flow of this study.

&bull The geomorphologic and hydrogeologic study

&bull The socio-economic study The aim of this work is the geometrical, geomorphological and hydrological modeling of the Zeuss-Koutine basin. We will proceed to the interpretation of existent data, the exploitation of the derivatives of the digital terrain and the creation of new layers and overlay plans GRID information in digital form created by interpolation [3].

The results obtained will be used to carry out basic information tools of prevention for fixing priorities for flood management in the basin of Zeuss-Koutine.

On the basis of the results obtained, means and solutions to fight against the floods will be proposed. Thus several types of development and dams will be defined at the end of this study to protect the Zeuss-Koutine basin in the case of probable serious flooding.

2.1.1. Geographical and Administrative Settings

The Zeuss-Koutine basin is situated in South-Eastern Tunisia ( Figure 2 ). It is a part of coastal plain of Jeffara in the southeastern Golf of Gabes. It is limited by the latitudes 37𑴲' and 37𑵚', and the longitudes 8𑵚' and 9𑴼' [4].

This sector covers an area of 920 km 2 . The Northern limit is formed by a line joining sebkhet Oum Ezassar to Henchir Fredj area. The North-Western, and SouthEastern limits are represented by reliefs of northern Dahar. The Southern limit is characterized by the reliefs of Tebaga of Medenine until Tadjeras and bordered by Mednine fault.

The double maritime and continental influence on our area generates a great variability of temperatures and precipitations space and time [5]. The annual average temperature in this area is of 20˚C whereas annual average pluviometry is below 200 mm/an.

The annual evapotranspiration in stations of Gabes and Medenine exceeds 1300 mm. [6].

2.1.2. Climatic Evolution in Tunisia

Climate of Tunisia is of the semi-arid type with very great variations in temperature and pluviometry in time that in space. The pluviometric mode is very variable in term of duration and intensity of the rains [7]. Rains of very strong intensity which can generate devastating risings of the natural environment have been witnessed [8].

Tunisian climate is mainly Mediterranean. The pupils can distinguish 3 great climatic units:

&bull At North, a “wet” zone (400 to 600 mm/year) which feeds the vast hydrographic network of Medjerda.

&bull In the center, on both sides of the “dorsale”, precipitations spread out of 250 with 400 mm: it is the beginning of a semi-arid climate, with semi-steppe vegetation development.

&bull In the south, an arid region (less 250 mm/year) even less than 150 mm in southern of Douz) whose “chotts” and the dunes represent the landscape dominating.

With this distribution, it is necessary to add the strong irregularity inter and intra-annual (less than 30 days of rain/year in the south) and the risks posed by the risings (spring and autumn, and not only at north).

The country has approximately 4.6 billion m 3 water resources: 60% run on the surface, 40% are underground but 80% of these resources are located in the north while 70% of ground waters are in the south.

The country is also equipped with water tables in north and an enormous potential consisted the fossil sheets of water (aquifers) in the south such as in the case of our sector of study (Zeuss-Koutine). One will point out that salinity is higher (salt 1.5 g/liter) in north.

2.1.3. History of the Risings in Tunisia

The risings are temporal natural changes water’s level caused by abundant precipitations causing the floods [9] they can occur under various weather conditions and are integral part of the river mode.

The consequences of the floods vary from a medium with another and are primarily related to the distance which separates the urban areas, the agricultural lands and the installations of the floodplains [10], it is thus the preliminary study for the prevention against these risks of floods proves to be paramount for the protection or the reduction of the possible damage.

In Tunisia, the most important risings recorded during the last fifty years are those of 1962, 1969, 1973, 1986, 2003, 2004, 2006, 2007 and 2012.

The risings observed during the last two years caused phenomena ever known with very high damage [11].

The efforts made by the persons in charge (will control) make it possible to equip the country with a broad hydraulic infrastructure: 27 stopping’s, 200 stopping’s hill, 766 lakes hill and more than 3000 drillings and 151,000 wells of surface mobilizing 83% of the unit of the exploitable water resources. These efforts remain always insufficient in front of floods [12] which can affect South-east Tunisia and precisely the area of Djeffara. This later is marked by elevated chains of Tebbaga, Matmata, Mareth and relayed directly at the east and north east to the Zeuss-Koutine basin objective of this study [13]. The rain waters and streaming are at the origin of the floods.

The area of Zeuss-Koutine as all Tunisian South-east presents climatic conditions and geomorphologic which prevent the formation of the risings naturally. These conditions are supposed as follows [14]:

- Irregular annual pluviometry and weak 100 Figure 3 ), as well in plan as in profile. This shutter is particularly useful for the establishment and the design of brought closer protections (dams, protections of banks) and of works to be built in the bed (work of derivation, stopping).

2) The hydrogeologic study

It is interested under investigation of the relations between the aquifers and the river. This shutter is justified if the aquifers are likely to influence the mode of the risings or to produce floods by increase of aquifers in the

protected sectors. This isn’t applicable in the sector of Zeuss-Koutine. Deep aquifers are always over exploited and will not reach surface even in the years with a high pluviometry [24].

2.3. Choice of a Strategy of Prevention

After having determined the relative importance of the challenges and the economic appreciation of the damage which is associated for them, passage with a true analysis cost benefits, when it was tried, was done on the basis of assumption, whose principal one is that the damage which could be monetized reflect the whole of the impacts of the floods.

Among the costs, must appear the investment costs which reflects the cost of the techniques of preventions but as well they brought up to date costs of maintenance.

3. Results and Interpretation

The terrestrial reproduction of the forms constitutes to translate, in a plan in 2D topographic surface 3D. The forms of representations of the relief are multiple: dimensioned points, contours, sights in prospect.

The development of the digital cartography and Geographical Information Systems SIG, allowed the creation of a new form of representation of altimetry information under digital format still called Digital Elevation Model of the ground DEM which is characterized by a considerable extensibility and flexibility on the level of its exploitation from which we can derive a multiplicity of products: contours, cards of slopes, exposure or of inter visibility, volumes, sights in prospect…

For hydrological studies of the areas catchment the DEM provides important information at the level of hydrological modeling by the extraction of the new plans of information allowing us having a detailed idea about the hydrographic networks, flows of water and physical characteristics of the basin. Several software SIG was interested in creation of the DEM in our case we chose ArcGis and its extension Arc Hydro Tools for the development of hydrological model.

Arc Hydro is a data model and toolset for integrating geospatial and temporal water resource information run within ArcGIS geographic information system. Although implemented in a commercial GIS environments.

All the calculations, carried out by the extension Hydro Arc, have as a base a digital elevation model (DEM).

The DEM chosen in this study is that elaborate following the interpolation by triangulation TIN of the vectorized level lines on scale 1/50,000 of the topographic maps of Matmata, Mareth, Ajim and Medenine on the other hand, its precision doesn’t make it possible to use it in a reliable way, it is for that one selected ace to use in more the DEM of the SRTM with resolution of 30.

This DEM is appeared as a grid whose elements are squares of 30 meters side thus an altitude is defined every 30 meters.

3.2. Hydrologic Modeling: DEM Derivatives

From the altimetry information of the DEM, derivatives maps and information’s will be calculated, to realize a morphological analysis of the study area, by the construction of slope map, charts of orientations and sunning charts of intervisibility, profiles, geological cuts-off and charts of hydraulic installations. Other maps and information have a hydrological interest such as the delimitation of the basins slopes [25], the extraction of subbasin, the automatic generation of the hydrographic network like and we developed other charts of modeling like the direction and accumulation flow.

Measurements of dips are essential data for the geologist and in particular for the structural analyst and for the hydrogeologist. They allow quantifying the geological objects observed on the surface and modeling them.

As a result, the slope map confirms the predominance of platform structure which corresponds to the Djeffra plain, represented by yellow and green color on the map.

This map shows slope aspect in Zeuss-Koutine basin. It uses different colors to indicate the direction of the steepest slope ( Figure 4 ).

We notice the abundance of the blue sky color, blue dark, orange and red which indicates a NS (North-South) dip direction of the cells of the basin of Zeuss-Koutine. This information is very useful for the determination of the direction of major flow and after the direction of the installations of protection against the rising will be perpendicular to this Major flow direction.

The tools of hydrological modeling proposed by spatial analysis make available methods to describe the physical components of a surface or basin.

Adaptation of DEM is a necessary step before hydrologic modeling, the main possibilities are:

- Adaptation of DEM to the actual position of the stream

In this study ( Figure 5 ), we will perform drainage analysis on a Digital Elevation Model DEM (30 m) of Zeuss-Koutine basin and provide a digital representation of watershed characteristics used in hydrologic modeling. The DEM are used to derive several data sets that collectively explain the drainage of a catchment. Raster analysis is performed to create data on DEM Reconditioning, flow direction, flow accumulation, stream definition, stream segmentation, and watershed delineation.

This function modifies a DEM by imposing linear features onto it (burning/fencing), we have chosen the hydrographic network of Zeuss-Koutine basin like a linear file for this application [26].

Among the problems we met for the reproduction runoff Zeuss-Koutine maps, it’s when the cell is surrounded by higher elevation cells, and the water is trapped in that cell and cannot flow. The Fill Sinks function modifies the elevation value to eliminate these problems filling these grids.

One of the principal parameters which can be extracted is the flow direction whose objective is the creation of a raster of integers to the direction of flow starting from each cell towards its neighbor with the steepest descent which values vary from 1 to 255 [27]. As a result, this chart is explained by the fact that each cell contains the direction (coding of Freeman) of water flow (Chiles J-p.2004).

Using the “Arc hydro” tool, we made the flow map of the study area. The cells flow to their nearest neighbor along 1 of 8 compass directions labeled as East = 1, SE = 2, S = 4, SW = 8, W = 16, NW = 32, N= 64, NE=128. Results were mostly more than 16, which mean a direction North West or North to South or South East. that is to say Jebel Tebbaga and anticlines around to the platform of Jeffara [28].

This function computes the flow accumulation grid that contains the accumulated number of cells upstream of a cell, for each cell in the input grid.

Stream Definition and Stream Segmentation

Figure 5 . Different maps of flows extracted by Arc Hydro-tools.

With this function we creates a grid of stream segments that have a unique identification.

Drainage Point Processing and Area Centroid

This function allows generating the drainage points associated to the catchments.

This function generates the Centroid of drainage areas as centers of gravity. It operates on a selected set of drainage areas in the input Drainage Area feature class. If no drainage area has been selected, the function operates on all the drainage areas.

This function converts the input Stream Link grid into a Drainage Line feature class. Each line in the feature class carries the identifier of the catchment in which it resides.

Catchment Grid Delineation

This function creates a grid in which each cell carries a value (grid code) indicating to which catchment the cell belongs. The value corresponds to the value carried by the stream segment that drains that area defined in the stream segment link grid.

Catchment Polygon Processing

This function converts a catchment grid it into a catchment polygon feature.

This function allows delineating subwatersheds for all the points in a selected Point Feature Class. Input to the batch subwatershed delineation function is a point feature class with point locations of interest [29]. The Batch Point Generation function can be used to interactively create such a file.

The cartography of the points of evacuation helps with determination of the troughs of low pressure constituting of the easily flooded zones ( Figure 6 ).

The classification of the affluent helps with the determination of the degrees of influence and the contribution of each wadi (ramification) in the formation of the risings ( Figure 7 ).

Generally the branches of greater order such as the wadi of order 4 are the main sources of the risings (Wadi Zeus, Om Zessar, Koutine…) this does not neglect the influence of the other derived wadis [30].

4.1. Map of Flood Zones and Degree Flood Risk

The use of the SIG for the determination of the geomophometric and physical characteristics of the catchment area of Zeuss-Koutine, starting from the digital elevation model obtained following the digitalization of altitudes, allowed us the mapping of flood zone and degree flood risk. quantify certain physical and hydrological parameters sector of study, per units Nets or GRID or PIXEL, to have an explanation of the phenomenon of flood and its effects and to give scenarios of prevention for the fight against these catastrophes to short and long-term.

The hydrologic modeling within Arc Hydro tools is to represent the physical processes within each catchment of interest so that, when driven by atmospheric forcing (precipitation, temperature) and for known catchment physical characteristics (topography, land cover), the models generate stream flow hydrographs at the catchment outlet that reproduce the corresponding observed hydrographs.

Terrain Preprocessing uses DEM to identify the surface drainage pattern. Once preprocessed, the DEM and its derivatives can be used for efficient watershed delineation and stream network generation.

At the end of this part, the use of tools buffers with a distance of 1000 m and 1500 m and 2000 have allowed

us to classify the degree of intensity of each parameter ( Figure 8 ).

The hydrological modeling of Zeuss-Koutine basin have provided a geomorphological idea of the basin by its subdivision into three bed the minor bed is the most flood zones and the more risky for the flood, then the main sources of flooding are the wadis of Zeuss, and Koutine Om Zessar and the waters become from the Jbel Tebaga in South West.

From the flow direction and accumulation map, we extract information about the mobility of surface water in Zeuss-Koutine.

This mobility is important due to the predominance of the sectors of low altitude ( Figure 9 ) with plans of the degree risks of floods translating the intensity of the flood in each sector on the level of ZeussKoutine was deduced following the superposition from all extracted information.

The technique Buffer to different distance (500 m 1000 m - 1500 m - 2000 m - 3000 m) under ArcGIS on the various layers create to us aces allowed after space superposition and intercrossing of:

- To delimit the floodplains

- To chart a plan of degree risk of flood of ZeussKoutine This work enabled us to produce tools of information of basic prevention to fix priorities as regards management of the floods: a chart of the floodplains and prevention plans of the risks.

The cards of the floodplains cover the geographical zones likely to be flooded according to 3 scenarios:

* Flood of weak probability or extreme scenarios of

events* Flood of average probability (correspondent at one period of higher or equal to return hundred years) and* If necessary, high flood probability.

For each scenario, the extent of the flood, the sectors easily flooded, the heights of water (or according to the case the water level) and possibly the current velocity or the flow of the rising, must be represented in carto-graphic form.

The maps of the degree floods risks show the intensity by sector of the potential negative consequences associated with the floods, i.e. saying the number of people and the extent of the goods likely to be affected by the risings, such as for example: agricultural economic activities, surfaces, transport networks. In this study, the calculation is based on the formula lee (2007).

RI = 2RH + SLOPE + RELIEF + 1/2 P 1/2 OS RI = Risk of flooding RH: Drainage P: Permeability OS: Land Use All parameters in the formula must be in RASTER mode to obtain the map of Degree flood risk ( Figure 1 0 ).

The results obtained show that the small bed or plain of Djeffara is the most easily flooded zone, and the sectors of Mareth and beni zeltene are exposed to the risks of floods. The upstream part of TouatiWadi presents executor probable flood which can be most catastrophic on the area of blessed Zeltene.

In the same way for Wadi Sidi Makhlouf and Oued Nekkar which present a danger to the areas successive of Mareth and Matmata.

4.2. Scenarios and Suggested Solution of Protection

Protection against the floods articulates about three shutters [31]: 1) the distant protection which consist in carrying out dam and lakes 2) brought closer protection against the flood which includes work of deviation of the wadi and waterways apart from the cities and the urban areas 3) The cleansing of rain waters inside the urban areas and which consists in carrying out networks of cleansing.

The scenarios of continuation prevention have this job is multiple and alternatives but it is necessary to choose the scenario which is appropriate and which allows:

&bull To analyze the operation of installations as a preliminary, to guarantee that their operation especially on the geotechnical level [32], will not generate an onaccident.

&bull The works can modify the perception of the risk on behalf of the residents. On the technical plan, the combination of many installations spatially distributed, and having a whole a local effect of rolling of the flows, must be analyzed on the whole of the catchment area. It is indeed advisable to make sure that the beneficial reduction in the risings obtained in a place will not involve a harmful synchronization elsewhere.

For the case of the basin of Zeuss-Koutine we see that best the solution of prevention against the flood and who aim at reducing the losses, in particular human and to protect the most exposed districts and the agricultural lands from the plain of Djeffara is the installation of the dams of protection.

The dam of protection against the floods and channeled rivers is defined as a longitudinal work which does not have function to retain water but to prevent its flow. It creates a difference in water level between two parts of the same floodplain and that this difference creates “hydraulic head” which imposes the work on forces against which it must be correctly dimensioned to resist.

The dams are various types:

&bull Dams of protection against the river, longitudinal floods during water flow

&bull Dams of belt in the inhabited places

&bull Dams of estuaries and protection against the marine immersions

&bull Channeled river shore embankments

The ranking of the works is done according to the dangerousness with gradual obligations (H = plus great height between the top of the work and the original ground on the side of the protected area, P = population maximum residing in protected area plumb with the top):

&bull Classify A: H >= 1 m and P >= 50,000 inhabitants

&bull Classify B: not classified of A and H >= 1 m and 1.000 = 1m and 10 >>

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Alternative profile graphs for ArcGIS - Geographic Information Systems

File or table name: RDEP_REDA_alt2_trans_BLM

Coordinate system: Universal Transverse Mercator

Theme keywords: RDEP, REDA, BLM-administered lands

Abstract: BLM RDEP Final EIS DATA. Restoration Design Energy Project. Bureau of Land Management, Arizona State Office, in conjunction with Environmental Management and Planning Solutions, Incorporated (EMPSi). GIS data created by Marcia Rickey, EMPSi, 303-447-7160, in conjunction with Kathy Pedrick, BLM Project Manager, David Batts, EMPSi, Lane Cowger 602-417-9612, BLM Assistant Project Manager, and Jim Kenna, State Director. RDEP data was also created with input and data from the BLM RDEP interdisciplinary team, AZ BLM field office managers and staff, cooperating agencies, environmental groups, utility and industry groups, and the general public. This data represents the Renewable Energy Development Areas (REDAs) for RDEP. REDAs are areas in Arizona with low or no known resource conflicts according to our analysis, and therefore may be suitable for renewable energy development. RDEP is a statewide analysis but decisions will be made on BLM land only. REDA data were created by compiling over forty GIS datasets of known resource constraints, such as National Landscape Conservation System lands, Areas of Critical Environmental Concern, wildlife habitat and species of concern data, recreation and visual data, etc. RDEP FEIS Chapter 2 Table 2-1, list of known resource conflicts lists data sets used for areas eliminated from consideration. The RDEP references section lists full references for data sources listed in Table 2-1. The data set RDEP_AZ_resources.shp shows many resources used in the analysis, not all datasets were included due to some datasets being private or sensitive. This data should be used in conjunction with RDEP_nominatedsites data. RDEP nominated sites were disturbed or low conflict sites nominated by the public during scoping. RDEP REDA does not include any potential Solar Energy Zones nominated by the Solar PEIS. RDEP FEIS GIS data are provided to the public. RDEP GIS data are on a statewide scale and therefore suitable for broad scale use. Detailed, site-specific analysis would be required to identify actual renewable energy project sites and to analyze potential impacts of development. As per GIS Data and Graphics note on page 1-14 of FEIS: Data were collected from a variety of sources, including the BLM, collaborative partners, stakeholders, and cooperating agencies. Given the scale of programmatic analyses, the compatibility restraints between datasets, and lack of data for some resources, all calculations are approximate and serve for comparison purposes only. BLM may receive additional GIS data therefore the acreages may be recalculated and revised at a later date.

FGDC and ESRI Metadata:

Citation: Citation information: Originators: Arizona State BLM

Title: RDEP REDA alternative 2 Transmission and Utility Corridor REDA on BLM-administered lands * File or table name: RDEP_REDA_alt2_trans_BLM

Publication date: Fall 2012 * Geospatial data presentation form: vector digital data

Publication information: Publication place: Phoenix, Arizona Publisher: Arizona State BLM

Time period of content: Time period information: Single date/time: Calendar date: Ocotber 2012

Point of contact: Contact information: Contact organization primary: Contact person: GIS Manager Contact organization: Arizona State Office, Bureau of Land Management Contact position: GIS Manager

Contact address: Address type: mailing and physical address

City: Phoenix State or province: Arizona Postal code: 85004 Country: United States
Contact voice telephone: (602) 417-9200

Contact electronic mail address: [email protected]

Hours of service: Monday-Friday, 8 AM - 4 PM, Mountain Standard Time

Security information: Security classification: Unclassified
* Native dataset format: Shapefile * Native data set environment: Microsoft Windows 2000 Version 5.2 (Build 3790) Service Pack 2 ESRI ArcCatalog

Cross reference: Citation information: Title: RDEP REDA alternative 1 maximum REDA on BLM-administered lands

Lineage: Source information: Source citation: Citation information: Originators: Bureau of Land Management

Title: Bureau of Land Management Data

Publication information: Publisher: Bureau of Land Management
Source scale denominator: 1:100,000 scale
Source time period of content: Time period information: Single date/time: Calendar date: unknown
Source currentness reference: publication date
Source information: Source citation: Citation information: Originators: Bureau of Indian Affairs

Title: Bureau of Indian Affairs Data

Publication information: Publisher: Bureau of Indian Affairs
Source time period of content: Time period information: Single date/time: Calendar date: unknown
Source currentness reference: publication date
Source information: Source citation: Citation information: Originators: Arizona State Land Department, Arizona Land Resources Information System

Title: Arizona State Land Department Surface Parcel Data

Publication information: Publication place: Phoenix, AZ Publisher: Arizona State Land Department, Arizona Land Resources Information System
Source time period of content: Time period information: Single date/time: Calendar date: Weekly
Source currentness reference: publication date
Process step: Process contact: Contact information: Contact organization primary: Contact person: GIS Manager Contact organization: AZ SO BLM Contact position: GIS Manager

Contact address: Address type: mailing and physical address

City: Phoenix State or province: AZ Postal code: 85004 Country: USA
Contact voice telephone: 602-417-9200

Contact electronic mail address: [email protected]

Hours of service: Monday-Friday, 8 AM-5PM, Mountain Standard Time

Back to Top Spatial Data Organization Information:

* Direct spatial reference method: Vector

Point and vector object information: SDTS terms description: * Name: RDEP_REDA_alt2_trans_BLM * SDTS point and vector object type: G-polygon * Point and vector object count: 1
SDTS terms description: * Name: label * SDTS point and vector object type: Label point * Point and vector object count: 15384
SDTS terms description: * Name: polygon * SDTS point and vector object type: GT-polygon composed of chains * Point and vector object count: 15384
SDTS terms description: * Name: node * SDTS point and vector object type: Node, planar graph * Point and vector object count: 66858
SDTS terms description: * Name: tic * SDTS point and vector object type: Point * Point and vector object count: 2059
SDTS terms description: * Name: annotation * SDTS point and vector object type: Label point * Point and vector object count: 0
ESRI terms description: * Name: RDEP_REDA_alt2_trans_BLM * ESRI feature type: Simple * ESRI feature geometry: Polygon * ESRI topology: FALSE * ESRI feature count: 1 * Spatial index: FALSE * Linear referencing: FALSE

Back to Top Spatial Reference Information:

Horizontal coordinate system definition: Coordinate system name: * Projected coordinate system name: NAD_1983_UTM_Zone_12N * Geographic coordinate system name: GCS_North_American_1983
Planar: Grid coordinate system: * Grid coordinate system name: Universal Transverse Mercator Universal Transverse Mercator: * UTM zone number: 12 Transverse mercator: * Scale factor at central meridian: 0.999600 * Longitude of central meridian: -111.000000 * Latitude of projection origin: 0.000000 * False easting: 500000.000000 * False northing: 0.000000
Planar coordinate information: * Planar coordinate encoding method: coordinate pair Coordinate representation: * Abscissa resolution: 0.000000 * Ordinate resolution: 0.000000 * Planar distance units: meters
Geodetic model: * Horizontal datum name: North American Datum of 1983 * Ellipsoid name: Geodetic Reference System 80 * Semi-major axis: 6378137.000000 * Denominator of flattening ratio: 298.257222
Back to Top Entity and Attribute Information:

Detailed description: * Name: RDEP_REDA_alt2_trans_BLM

Entity type: Entity type label: Arizona Boundary * Entity type type: Feature Class * Entity type count: 1 Entity type definition source: AZ BLM
Attribute: * Attribute label: FID * Attribute alias: FID

* Attribute type: OID * Attribute width: 4 * Attribute precision: 0 * Attribute scale: 0

Attribute domain values: * Unrepresentable domain: Sequential unique whole numbers that are automatically generated.

Attribute: * Attribute label: Shape * Attribute alias: Shape

* Attribute type: Geometry * Attribute width: 0 * Attribute precision: 0 * Attribute scale: 0

Attribute domain values: * Unrepresentable domain: Coordinates defining the features.

Attribute: * Attribute label: Acres * Attribute alias: Acres

* Attribute type: Float * Attribute width: 19 * Attribute number of decimals: 11

Attribute: * Attribute label: Type * Attribute alias: Type

* Attribute type: String * Attribute width: 50

Distributor: Contact information: Contact organization primary: Contact person: GIS Manager Contact organization: Bureau of Land Management, Arizona State Office Contact position: GIS Managter

Contact address: Address type: mailing and physical address

City: Phoenix State or province: Arizona Postal code: 85004 Country: USA
Contact voice telephone: (602) 417-9200

Contact electronic mail address: [email protected]

Hours of service: Monday-Friday, 8 AM - 4 PM, Mountain Standard Time

Technical prerequisites: ESRI software or software compatible with ESRI file formats

Back to Top Metadata Reference Information:

Metadata contact: Contact information: Contact organization primary: Contact person: GIS Manager Contact organization: Bureau of Land Management, Arizona State Office Contact position: GIS Manager

Contact address: Address type: mailing and physical address

City: Phoenix State or province: Arizona Postal code: 85004 Country: USA
Contact voice telephone: (602) 417-9200

Contact electronic mail address: [email protected]

Hours of service: Monday-Friday, 8 AM - 54PM, Mountain Standard Time

* Metadata standard name: FGDC Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata * Metadata standard version: FGDC-STD-001-1998 * Metadata time convention: local time

Building Historical Maps for Cityscapes, An Online Discovery Tool for Urban and Cultural Studies

For the past year and a half, my department, Academic Technology Services, has been working on a mapping project that we call Cityscapes. It's a “Web 2.0” tool to allow students to collaborate in their studies of urban neighborhoods, where geography should be an organizing theme. Think of Google Maps, then think of groups of students adding their own location markers and decorating them with photos, videos, and blogs.

The two sites we've created so far can be seen here:

The Tokyo site is not completely open due to copyright considerations if you would like an account, contact me.

My part of this project was preparing the historical maps that you see in the image below. This included georeferencing them but also turning them into properly positioned Google tiles.


PC Suggestions

Something of a mix on here. Some use Windows, some use Mac IOS. Works on both platforms, as you have already discovered.

With a PC, you should go for a good monitor, and don't stop at a laptop, unless that's all you are interested in.

With Mac, the displays are pretty good, and no monitor choice is available, unless you want a second display.

Here is a link to the minimum requirements:


TPF Supporters

I'm hopefully going to upgrade mine this year. Looking at an Ryzen 3600, Asus Tuf X570 or a Strix X570 and some 3600mhz RAM. Probably going to stick an Nvidia 2060 Super in it. Need to get myself a proper high res IPS panel to go with it at somepoint. I think that should see me with decent specs and do for a gaming build as well in the price/performance sweet spot.

Now AMD have gone 7nm and the IPC have caught up with Intel and I don't see a compelling reason to go with the latter especially with the extra cores on the AMD platform.

No longer a newbie, moving up!

Well, I recommend against what I'm using right now, a Dell XPS 13. Mine's an older model ('9360') from 2017/2018, screen resolution is 3200x1800. The first problem is that there's no external large screen with this native resolution. Second problem, the machine doesn't internally vent well, and mine overheated resulting in a battery that puffed-up and requried replacement. Third, the resolution is almost too high for a 13" screen, for those applications that don't scale properly and only work at native resolution they're simply too small on-screen.

The modern Dell XPS 13 units are now 3840x2160 if memory serves, which makes their screens even higher resolution, with even smaller pixels, probably too small. At least that's an off-the-shelf resolution for external monitors though, so docking the computer is easier. But they went from SD to Micro SD for the reader, so this complicates reading camera memory if one is still using full-sized SD cards.

It's going to be a couple years before my next laptop, but basically I want a screen that's 16:10 aspect, not 16:9, the extra height is useful, and I probably won't want a screen smaller than 15". I'll also pay much closer attention to ventilation and the ability to run 24/7/365, as I never shut off my computer.

Now, the i7 7560U and 16GB RAM is nice, it generally doesn't want for processing power or ever hit the swapfile.


Fuzzy, wuzzy Nanuq

I currently use a 15" Dell Inspiron 7000 series laptop running Windows 10. A few years ago I had a MacBook Pro but the video card and keyboard went south. I really liked OS-X but the hardware is overpriced for my budget (though I do have an older iPhone).

Lightroom and Photoshop run just fine on this machine, and I am able to run other apps that I use at work (ArcGIS Geographic Information Systems platform, MS Office). I plan to pick up a larger monitor, but the laptop screen does very well at holding the color calibration.


Been spending a lot of time on here!
No longer a newbie, moving up!

I suppose without knowing how Lacrossedad intends to use this PC, it'll be difficult to offer particularly good suggestions. We can suggest the best lighweight travel laptop for tethered shooting or the best workstation-grade deskop for high end graphics and video editing, but the point is to casually sit on the computer on the sofa to edit photos, neither of those suggestions would be terribly useful.

Even my caution against the XPS 13 might be wrong if the point is to tethered-shoot, since the two best features of that computer are size and weight.

No longer a newbie, moving up!

It's all comes down to budget.
I bought a $300 HP laptop a month or 2 ago with 10th gen i5 and memory upgraded to 16GB, HD upgraded to 512GB M2 NVME. Hook it up with an external monitor and USB storage and is all good. I primary use LR and speed is fine. No complaint there.

In fact, my old setup with a 2nd gen i5 was also fine with LR. So I think any newer decent computer with a price tag of $500+ out there should be good for PS/LR. My HP i5 was a special deal at Costco late last year that it was advertised as i3 laptop but most of early inventory were equipped with a i5 instead.

Apple or PC, it does not matter. It is more or less a personal choice. Just in general, you may need to spend a little more for the Apple products. Of course, it is nothing wrong with that as long as you are happy with it. For me, if money is not a factor, I will go with Microsoft Surface Studio 2.


No longer a newbie, moving up!

Apple hardware is pretty much unbeatable for this purpose.

AND its high quality in all areas. These things keep running.

Frankly, it appears expensive compared to Windows PCs, but its really not.

By the way, you can also install Windows and/or Linux on such a computer, and still benefit from having the great hardware.

No longer a newbie, moving up!

Apple hardware is pretty much unbeatable for this purpose.

AND its high quality in all areas. These things keep running.

Frankly, it appears expensive compared to Windows PCs, but its really not.

By the way, you can also install Windows and/or Linux on such a computer, and still benefit from having the great hardware.

I'm sorry, but I have to disagree with your assessment on Apple hardware based on my experience with a circa-2011 Apple Macbook Pro that apparently suffers cold solder joints in the attachment of its 3D accelerator chip. I had this manifest in a broken computer when it was only around four years old. they've also had numerous problems with keyboards and touchpads over the years and have tried to blame those faults on the end users rather than on their own designs.

Furthermore Apple has gone hyperactive in rendering even its old hardware and peripherals obsolete in that it deprecates-out interfaces and support for protocols at a much more rapid rate than other manufacturers, even when those interfaces that it championed and promoted for widespread use have become industry standards. Things like IEEE-1394, aka Firewire, which they removed from their computers basically right as industry started supporting it for commercial video purposes.

When it comes to working with the camera, the camera manufacturers do not chase the latest trends. New Canon cameras only just got USB-C about a year and a half ago, and Apple hasn't had an SD slot in their computers since 2016 [citation], citing that one must use (ie, carry around) an external adapter to handle SD cards.

So no, I wouldn't recommend Apple for this purpose, they have this habit of yanking the floor out from underneath the user, and their hardware is not quite as durable as people think it is.

Watch the video: ArcMap 10: How to create Profiles using a DEM - Channel cross sections! Ground Truthing! YAY